India has taken a lot of criticism for not joining in global criticism of Russia over the invasion of Ukraine.
In the drama of conflict, few take time to think – but India perhaps deserves you taking a moment to reflect on why it has taken a neutral stance.
At the very centre of India’s position is that in face of border challenges with China, it needs its defence partnership with Russia to continue.
Interesting that almost all western leaders recognise this strategic dilemma.
India is an important part of the move to balance China in the Indo-Pacific, so it is vital to understand their position.
Few are aware that for all of its democratic and independent life, India has been very close to Russia. It is a long standing relationship.
India is now the only Quad country to have not called Russia out by its name let alone by imposing economic sanctions.
But the other three nations in the Quad know that India’s defence relationship with Russia could be described as its “most valued partnership”, as a recent Lowy Institute paper put it.
How important is Russia to India? A whopping 86% of Indian military hardware is of Russian origin – and this hardware is central to India’s ability to stand up to China over longstanding territorial disputes.
In 2018, India signed a US$5 billion deal with Russia to buy the S-400 missile defence system. Trump warned India that it might impose sanctions – so far, no sanctions have arisen.
And don’t forget Russia has been the only country to support India over decades of problems with Pakistan. In 1971 when India and Pakistan fought for 13 days, Russia was the only country to help India – no western country provided support. The USA ignored Delhi’s please for help over East Pakistan as it then was.
You could see this as an “over reliance” on Russia, but don’t forget it has been close to Russia since the first Prime Minister Nehru took office – and it is only recently that it has become involved closely with countries like the USA, Japan and Australia.
India’s position on Russia and problems with China were somewhat challenged by the recent Russia-China joint statement, pledging that “there are no ‘forbidden’ areas of cooperation”. India is no doubt seeking to understand what this means – and in such a fast changing environment, is even more unlikely to call our Russia over Ukraine.
With the brutality and horror of the war on Ukraine now clearly visible, whether India will change its neutrality stance remains to be seen.
But hopefully the above information has helped you understand India’s position.